Hapsburg and Austria
Following the death of the last of the Babenbergs (1246), the Duchy of Austria goes hereditarily into the possession of the Premyslid Ottokar II, king of the Bohemians. His empire, which stretches from Silesia to Istria, disintegrates again after his death in the Battle of Marchfeld in 1278 against King Rudolf I of the Hapsburgs.Rudolf I brings the Babenberg holdings of Ottokar's inheritance (the duchies of Austria and Styria) back to the empire again and gives them as fiefs to his sons. The Counts of Hapsburg thus become the Dukes of Austria. The glory of this title and the vastness and unified nature of the domain with the residence city in Vienna shift the center of interest of the territorial politics of the Hapsburgs into Austrian territory. The former properties in Alsace, Breisgau and Aargau become the outer holdings of Austria. These are known from the 16th century to around 1800 as "Vorderösterreich."